What is a traumatic brain injury?
The most common cause of a brain damage is traumatic in origin and is known as a traumatic brain injury (TBI).
The brain, which forms the central nervous system together with the spinal cord, is protected by the skull and includes the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The brain is the most complex structure in the human body and is the main nerve centre; its different areas are responsible for movement, sensations and perceptions, emotions and behaviour, and higher mental functions take place in it.
How is a traumatic brain injury caused?
Injury to the brain after trauma is due, firstly, to the primary injury (contusion) directly related to the impact on the skull or the rapid acceleration/deceleration movement, and secondly, to the secondary injury (oedema, haemorrhage, increased pressure in the skull, etc.), which develops as a result of the primary injury during the first days after the accident and which can have serious consequences on the functional prognosis.