First described in 1817 by J. Parkinson, it is a central nervous system disease that affects the structures responsible for movement, balance, maintaining muscle tone and posture. One of these structures is the substantia nigra, a nucleus of the brainstem that contains dopamine, an essential neurotransmitter that regulates movement. The disease is manifested by tremors, slowing, stiffness and impaired balance, posture and gait.
Treatment is pharmacological and surgical interventions are indicated in some cases, although physical therapy may be helpful for correcting or alleviating the patient's motor problems.
References about Parkinson
- Amano S1, Roemmich RT, Skinner JW, Hass CJ. Ambulation and Parkinson disease. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2013 May;24(2):371-92.
- Proud EL, Miller KJ, Bilney B, Balachandran S, McGinley JL, Morris ME. Evaluation of measures of upper limb functioning and disability in people with Parkinson disease: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Mar;96(3):540-551
- Zhuang X1, Mazzoni P, Kang UJ. The role of neuroplasticity in dopaminergic therapy for Parkinson disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013 May;9(5):248-56.
- Ahlskog JE. Does vigorous exercise have a neuroprotective effect in Parkinson disease? Neurology. 2011 Jul 19;77(3):288-94
- Caballol N1, Martí MJ, Tolosa E. Cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Parkinson disease. Mov Disord. 2007 Sep;22 Suppl 17:S358-66.