Institut Guttmann

Neurorehabilitation hospital

+34 93 497 77 00

Cerebral Palsy

The term cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a persistent (but not unchanging) disorder of movement and posture as the result of a non-progressive abnormality in the developing brain.

There may be multiple causes, and they may occur during the prenatal, perinatal or postnatal period. Depending on the predominant movement disorder, CP is classified into four types: spastic, dystonic, ataxic and mixed. Depending on the extent of motor injury, it may be a quadriplegia, diplegia, hemiplegia or monoplegia.

There may be other signs and/or symptoms associated with the motor disorder that are worth highlighting: mental retardation in two thirds of patients (especially those with spastic quadriplegia), learning disabilities, visual impairment, hearing deficits, communication disorders, seizures, emotional or behavioural disorders, deglutition abnormalities etc.

Treatment during the development phase will focus on leading the psychomotor development in each case by preventing complications.

In adulthood, during which neuromotor acquisitions have stabilised, it is important to follow up at least annually for early detection of possible complications and to assess and ensure continued functionality.



References about Cerebral Palsy

  • Muriel V, Garcia-Molina A, Aparicio-Lopez C, Ensenat A, Roig-Rovira T. Relationship between executive functioning and behaviour in children with cerebral palsy. Rev Neurol. 2015 Oct 16;61(8):337-43
  • Novak I1, McIntyre S, Morgan C, Campbell L, Dark L, Morton N, Stumbles E, Wilson SA, Goldsmith SA. Systematic review of interventions for children with cerebral palsy: state of the evidence. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013 Oct;55(10):885-910.
  • Burdea GC, Cioi D, Kale A, Janes WE, Ross SA, Engsberg JR..Robotics and gaming to improve ankle strength, motor control, and function in children with cerebral palsy--a case study series. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2013 Mar;21(2):165-73.
  • Tugui RD, Antonescu D. Cerebral palsy gait, clinical importance. Maedica (Buchar). 2013 Sep;8(4):388-93.
  • Strobl W, Theologis T, Brunner R, Kocer S, Viehweger E, Pascual-Pascual I, Placzek R.Best clinical practice in botulinum toxin treatment for children with cerebral palsy. Toxins (Basel). 2015 May 11;7(5):1629-48